Location: Cape Verde     Date: Aug 2015     Flying Hours: Met Office 90 + EUFAR 10     Sondes: 48

ICE-D:  Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust

Scientific Objectives:
The role of mineral dust as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and the effect of aerosol interactions with cloud evolution remains uncertain. These aerosol-cloud interactions affect the radiative properties of clouds and are a large contribution to the uncertainty in climate change. Hence, measurements of cloud-forming particles (CCN and IN) are fundamental. The Sahara is a primary source of mineral dust particles, transported in the atmosphere westwards across the Atlantic. Mineral dust with sources from the Saharan region have been identified as efficient ice nuclei in laboratory and field studies, but the effect on cloud evolution has not been measured. The Cape Verde area is near the source region where dust concentrations are large, and both dust events and cumulus congestus clouds are frequently observed.  The large gradients in dust concentration enable aircraft sampling over a wide range of conditions in a single flight, there are diverse physical properties and mineralogical composition, and ageing by surface chemical effects over the ocean are large.

Location: Namibia     Date: August-September 2016     Flying hours:  120     Sondes: 60


CLARIFY 2016 - CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Impacts and Forcing: Year 2016

CLARIFY-2016 will deliver a wide range of airborne, surface-based and satellite measurements of clouds, aerosols, and their radiative impacts to 1) improve our knowledge of the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effect of absorbing biomass burning aerosols; 2) improve our knowledge of the processes determining stratocumulus cloud microphysical and radiative properties; 3) challenge and improve satellite retrievals of cloud and aerosol and their radiative impacts; 4) improve numerical models of cloud and aerosol and their impacts on radiation, weather and climate.