Current / Future Campaigns

2015: ICE-D


Location: Cape Verde     Date: Aug 2015     Flying Hours: ~100 (Met Office transit[20] and detachment[~70]) + 10 EUFAR (detachment)    Sondes: tbc

ICE-D:  Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust

Met Office & EUFAR Campaign 

Studying ice nuclei and radiation



Scientific Objectives:
The role of mineral dust as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and the effect of aerosol interactions with cloud evolution remains uncertain. These aerosol-cloud interactions affect the radiative properties of clouds and are a large contribution to the uncertainty in climate change. Hence, measurements of cloud-forming particles (CCN and IN) are fundamental. The Sahara is a primary source of mineral dust particles, transported in the atmosphere westwards across the Atlantic. Mineral dust with sources from the Saharan region have been identified as efficient ice nuclei in laboratory and field studies, but the effect on cloud evolution has not been measured. The Cape Verde area is near the source region where dust concentrations are large, and both dust events and cumulus congestus clouds are frequently observed.  The large gradients in dust concentration enable aircraft sampling over a wide range of conditions in a single flight, there are diverse physical properties and mineralogical composition, and ageing by surface chemical effects over the ocean are large.

The Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (Ice-D) is an aircraft field campaign, conducted in concert with modelling and laboratory experiments, to improve the understanding and representation in models of dust-produced IN and CCN. The measurements will focus on both the in-situ aerosol properties of the dust lifted off the Sahara, and on the aerosol-cloud interactions and subsequent evolution of towering cumulus clouds which are dynamically, relatively simple to model. During the summer of 2015 the UK FAAM BAe-146 will deploy to Cape Verde to carry out in-situ measurements of the dust aerosol and cloud properties. The focus will be on the role of mineral dust as primary heterogeneous ice nuclei and secondary ice processes during the cloud evolution. During the deployment ground-based observations including aerosol monitoring, lidar and radar will be carried out. Additionally, with identification of the major source region of the dust encountered during selected Ice-D flights, surface samples from these regions will be used in AIDA experiments (possibly in conjunction with the 2015 International Ice Nucleation Workshop) to determine the detailed behaviour as IN and CCN.

For the UK Met Office perspective, there is a requirement to investigate whether incorporating aerosol-cloud interactions improves NWP. The MetUM optionally has new microphysics with aerosol interactions, eg. based on UKCA-mode (UK chemistry and aerosol) with aerosols represented by mass and number prognostic variables. Extensive and well-constrained case studies are required to answer the question 'is the prognostic dust  aerosol realistic and does it make a difference to cloud evolution in a well-constrained, relatively simple aerosol-cloud interaction system? ' The development of new ice nucleation instruments and improved aerosol and cloud probes means that for the first time, there will be reliable comparisons between IN measurements and ice particles observed early in the development of the ice phase. The primary objective of the Ice-D experiment is to show that direct ice nucleation measurements can be used to predict the number of ice particles formed by primary nucleation mechanisms in dynamically simple clouds.

Additionally to the primary science relating to IN, there will be significant aerosol-radiation science objectives (referred to as AERO-D or ICE-D:AEROSOL). This will focus on the prediction and data assimilation of dust in the Unified Model, on the representation of aerosol and cloud fields in the CALIPSO satellite products, and the validation of ground-based remote sensing techniques.




  • Detachment Manager - Doug Anderson, FAAM
  • Logistics - Duncan MacLeod, FAAM
  • Project Pilot - TBC, Project Ops - Peter Chappell, DFL
  • PI - Richard Cotton, Met Office; Professor Alan Blyth, University of Leeds; Prof Tom Choularton, University of Manchester



ICE-D Pre-detachment Briefing

To follow


CAST Planning Documents


ICE-D Transits

Single day with double flight crew.



Anticipated ICE-D Flight Plans

16 Flights (10 cloud flights, 4 dust flights, 2 EUFAR flights)


ICE-D Health & Safety

Control Risks Cape Verde Country Report 20 Apr 2015

MASTA Travel Health Brief Cape Verde 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 20 Apr 2015)

Control Risks Senegal Country Report 20 Apr 2015

MASTA Travel Health Brief Senegal 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 20 Apr 2015) 

Control Risks Mali Country Report 20 Apr 2015

MASTA Travel Health Brief Mali 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 20 Apr 2015)

Control Risks Mauritania Country Report 20 Apr 2015

MASTA Travel Health Brief Mauritania 20 Jul 2015 to 31 Aug 2015 (issued 20 Apr 2015)


ICE-D Visas

These are the details of the Consul in London who will issue multi entry visa for Cape Verde. You will have to fill in an online form and print it off to either take with you or send to.

Cape Verdean Consulate in London, The United Kingdom
7A The Grove
London N6 6JU
United Kingdom

TELEPHONE (+44) 7876 232305 FAX  
EMAIL  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Visa Application Form: Cape Verde Visa Enquiry





ICE-D Configuration Information

Contact Steve Devereau for further information

  • Aircraft Configuration

Provides an overview of the instrument configuration and aircraft mass.



  • Aircraft Configuration Drawings and Instrument Configuration  Listing

The drawings show the proposed aircraft configuration for ICE-D. The Configuration Information gives more details of the instruments fitted.


Note, the information noted below is taken from a draft application form. A completed one should reduce the instruments listed as y.

updated ?/2015 by SCD




(FAAM unless otherwise stated)



Basic Aircraft, Meteorological Instruments and General Equipment
(always fitted unless otherwise stated)
Temperature: non-deiced/deiced, Heimann IR   y  
Water: General Eastern, Buck CR2 Cryogenic Hygrometer, TWC Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer, Johnson Williams Liquid Water, Nevzorov Total/Liquid Water   y  
Broad-Band Radiometers: Clear and Red   y  
Position/Dynamics: GPS, GIN, Radar altimeter   y  
video: Forward, Rearward, Upward, Downward   y  
Communications: SATCOM-C, SATCOM-Swift 64   y  
Weather radar   y  
Turbulence probe   y  
SAW Cambridge n  
WVSS-II Met Office y  
AVAPS/Aerosol LIDAR Rack      
AVAPS Dropsondes   y up to 4 / flight (16 flights) (64 max)
LIDAR Met Office y  
Photometers: JNO2, JO'D Leicester n  
ARIES Met Office y  
DEIMOS Met Office n  
MARSS Met Office n  
IIR Met Office n  
SWS Met Office (y) depends on operator availability
SHIM Met Office (y) depends on operator availability
ISMAR Met Office n  
TAFTS Imperial College n  
Core Chemistry/Nitrate Racks
Ozone   y  
FGGA   y  ???
CO   y  
Fast NOx   y  ???
PAN Leeds n  
Core Chemistry Rack, Civil Contingency      
2B Ozone
SO2   y ??? 
BBCEAS Cambridge n  
FAGE Leeds n  
VACC Leeds n  
Peroxide/Formaldehyde UEA n  
CIMS Manchester n  
QC-LAS Manchester n  
LIF L'Aquila n  
WAS FGAM y ??? & tedlar bags ???
LTI/Grimm OPC FAAM/Leeds y  
TDLAS Cambridge n  
York GCMS York n  
Cloud Physics and Aerosol      
Cloud Physics Rack      
2D Cloud   y  
PCASP   y  
CDP/BCP   y  
CIP100   y  
Hertfordshire y  
SID3 Hertfordshire y  
Fast FSSP Met Office n  
FSSP/SPP-100 Manchester y  
AIMMS-20   y  
Manchester Cloud/Aerosol Rack      
CAPS Manchester y  
2DS Manchester y  
SPEC-CPI Manchester y  
SP2 Manchester y  
UHSAS Manchester y  
FWVS Met Office n  
Nephelometer/PSAP/Filters Rack      
Wet Nephelometer Met Office n  
Nephelometer, PSAP, Filters   y, y, y  
IAGOS-BCP Manchester y  
INC Met Office n  
CVI Met Office n  
TOF-AMS Manchester y  
ALABAMA Max Plank Institute y  

Drag Index Values

updated ??/2015 by ??

Instrument Drag Index Value Fitted? Drag index for Fit
FFSSP 3    
HVPS 20    
2D-P 11    
PCASP 1   1
SID-1 15    
SID-2 18    
SID-3 18    
2D-C 5    
2D-C + modified tips 7    
Spec-CPI 14    
CIP-25 30    
CIP-25 + modified tips 38    
CIP-100 30    
CIP-100 + modified tips 38    
2D-S 31    
CAPS 57    
CAPS + modified tips 70    
CDP/BCP 9   9
AIMMS-20 8   8
ADA-100 3    
PERCA Inlet 7    
MARSS scanner 29    
(HOx) FAGE Inlet 89    
SWS 36    
CAMP SAW Hygrometer 5    
CVI Probe 20    
CIMS Inlet (ROx) 39    
BBCEAS Inlet 5   5
LIF Inlet 2    
CIMS window-blank Inlet 11   11
WVSS-II (Rosemount Inlet) 5   5
ISMAR 3    
FAGE (HOx & CIMS Inlet [ROx}) 140    
GC-MS Inlet 9   9
CORE CHEM 19   19
 QCL Inlet (window)  6    6
TOTAL Drag Index     73


2016: Monsoon

Location: India     Date: May-July 2016     Flying hours: ~90     Sondes: tbc


NERC programme "Drivers of the Variability in the Indian Monsoon"
involves 3 separate Consortium bids, each of which involve both UK and Indian partners.
1.  SWAAMI: South West Asian Aerosol Monsoon Interactions. 
PIs - Coe and Babu
SWAAMI will contribute to the NERC/MoES joint programme “Variability in the Indian Monsoon” by combining an intensive and extensive study of aerosol properties and their effect on the energy budget and use these to improve knowledge of the influence of aerosols on the Indian Monsoon.
Key Objectives:
KO1: Assess the impact of mineral dust, black carbon aerosol and co-emitted organic and inorganic species on the radiation budget via the direct, semi-direct and indirect effects
KO2: Assess the impact of the aerosol radiative forcing on the local energy budget, atmospheric dynamics and hydrological cycle over India
KO3: Assess the impact of the forcings and feedbacks arising from aerosols over Indian region on regional and global climate


2.  INCOMPASS: Interaction of Convective Organisation and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea.
PIs - Turner and Bhat
The main objective is to improve predictions of monsoon rainfall on a variety of space/time scales by better understanding and representing the dynamics and thermodynamics of the monsoon as air advances from the moisture source region of the Indian Ocean over the land surface, being modulated by convection operating at different scales along the way.
We will deliver outputs including a synthesised collection of existing and new surface and atmospheric data, an improved land-surface representation for India and better understanding of surface-boundary layer convection-cloud microphysics interactions in the monsoon. This understanding will feed into improved UK and India capability for predicting monsoon rainfall.


3.  BoBBLE - Bay of Bengal Boundary Layer Experiment. 
PIs - Matthews and Vinayachandran
The prime aim of this project is to understand the coupled ocean-atmosphere processes over the Bay of Bengal during different phases of the summer monsoon. This will be achieved by analysing critical new measurements, evaluation of long-term estimates of air-sea exchange and ocean storage, and investigation of processes and data assimilation in models.


Full campaign details to follow:-


  • Detachment Manager - Mo Smith, FAAM
  • Logistics - tbc, FAAM
  • Project Pilot - Finbarre Brennan, Project Ops - David Simpson, DFL
  • PIs - Hugh Coe, University of Manchester; Andy Turner, University of Reading; Adrian Matthews, University of East Anglia



Location: Namibia     Date: August-September 2016     Flying hours:  120     Sondes: 60



CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Impacts and Forcing: Year 2016 (CLARCLARIFY-2016), will deliver a wide range of airborne, surface-based and satellite measurements of clouds, aerosols, and their radiative impacts to 1) improve our knowledge of the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effect of absorbing biomass burning aerosols; 2) improve our knowledge of the processes determining stratocumulus cloud microphysical and radiative properties; 3) challenge and improve satellite retrievals of cloud and aerosol and their radiative impacts; 4) improve numerical models of cloud and aerosol and their impacts on radiation, weather and climate.


CLARIFY is a major consortium programme consisting of 5 principal UK universities with project partners from the UK Met Office, European universities and research institutes. This work is being planned in conjunction with parallel activities from the NASA (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their interactions, ORACLES) and the USA’s NSF (ObservatioNs of Fireʼs Impact on the southeast atlantic REgion, ONFIRE) programmes and is supported by many European and international partners making CLARIFY a truly international, high profile, high impact project. 

CLARIFY-2016 will improve the representation of biomass burning aerosols and clouds over the SE Atlantic in models of a range of scales, increase the fidelity of aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interaction processes and cloud representation, and their impacts on local, regional and global weather and climate.

Key objectives of CLARIFY-2016 are:

KO1: Assess the physical, optical and radiative properties of BBAs (WP2)
KO2: Assess and improve the representation of BBA radiation interactions when clouds are absent/present (WP2, 3)
KO3: Assess and improve the representation of stratocumulus cloud when BBA is absent/present (WP2, 4)
KO4: Assess the impacts of clouds-aerosol-radiation and their interactions at local, regional, and global scales (WP2, 3, 4, 5)
These objectives will be achieved by conducting an intensive airborne field campaign with supporting surface based, and satellite measurements. The measurements will be used to challenge, and develop models at different spatial scales that couple aerosols, clouds and radiation.

Enabling objectives are:-
EO1: To characterise chemical, microphysical, optical and radiative properties of BBA over the SE Atlantic region, focussing on black carbon, absorption and single scattering albedo (WP2, WP4).
EO2: To investigate the geographic and vertical profile of BBA over the region (WP2, WP3, WP4).
EO3: To characterise the vertical thermodynamic structure of the MBL, residual continental polluted layer, and free troposphere and diurnal and synoptic scale variations (WP2, WP4).
EO4: To characterise broad-band and spectral reflectance of the ocean surface and stratocumulus clouds when overlying BBA is present/absent from the atmospheric column (WP2, WP3).
EO5: To characterise key cloud processes and parameters such as entrainment, cloud-base updraft velocities, CCN, CDNC, cloud droplet effective radius, cloud liquid water path and optical depth (WP2, WP4).
EO6: Use CLARIFY campaign data with representative statistical sampling as well as high-resolution models to establish robust relationships between sub-grid scale variables and large-scale model parameters suitable for constraining aerosol-cloud interactions.
EO7: To use synergistic observations/model simulations to investigate impacts on NWP and climate model performance, feedback mechanisms and teleconnections (WP2, WP3, WP4, WP5).


  • Detachment Manager - Doug Anderson, FAAM
  • Logistics - tbc, FAAM
  • Project Pilot - Ian Ramsay-Rae, Project Ops - Peter Chappell, DFL
  • PI - Jim Haywood, University of Exter, Hugh Coe, University of Manchester



CLARIFY Healy & Safety

Control Risks Namibia Country Report 20 Apr 2015

MASTA Travel Health Brief Namibia


CLARIFY Pre-detachment Briefing


CLARIFY Planning Documents


CLARIFY Transits


Anticipated CLARIFY Flight Plans